Thursday, March 30, 2006

Pengakuan

Pendahuluan

Konsep pengakuan terletak diantara hukum dan politik dalam masyarakat internasional. Pengakuan Negara dan pemerintahan hakekatnya adalah tindakan politis yang memiliki implikasi hukum baik secara internasional maupun nasional.

Kata-Kata Kunci:

a. Pengakuan Negara dan Pemerintah:
Doktrin pengakuan diterapkan secara setara baik terhadap negara dan pemerintahan namun secara operasional hal tersebut terjadi ketika ada perubahan yang radikal seperti perang saudara, perang kemerdekaan atau proses penentuan nasib sendiri (self determination), termasuk kemungkinan terjadinya intervensi dari negara asing ke suatu wilayah negara lain.

b. Pengakuan yang Tersurat dan Tersirat
Pengakuan dapat dilakukan secara nyata dengan melalui jalur-jalur formal tentang keberadaan suatu negara dengan menjalin sutau hubungan diplomatik atau menandatangani perjanjian kerjasama bilateral dengan negara atau pemerintahan baru. Namun, pengakuan bisa saja dilakukan secara diam-diam (tersirat) misalnya dengan saling mengirimkan perwakilan negaranya ke negara atau pemerintahan baru (meski tidak membuka kantor perwakilan resmi), atau menjalankan kerjasama tanpa suatu perjanjian tertulis atas kegiatan tertentu.

c. Teori Konstitutif dan Teori Deklarasi
Ada dua teori yang sama-sama kuat dalam mendukung teori pengakuan yang ada dalam masyarakat internasional.
1. Teori konstitutif (Constitutive Theory) yang menganggap bahwa suatu negara belumlah diakui keberadaannya jika belum pernah secara formal diakui oleh negara yang telah berdiri sebelumnya (de Jure)
2. Teori deklarasi (Declaratory Theory) menyatakan bahwa keberadaan suatu negara adalah fakta yang tidak membutuhkan pengakuan resmi dan formal dari negara yang telah berdiri sebelumnya. Pengakuan dari negara lain semata-mata hanya merupakan tindakan deklaratif biasa yang tidak memiliki implikasi hukum (de Facto).
d. Kriteria Pengakuan Negara
The Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States 1933 dalam Pasal 1 menyatakan bahwa : The State as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
i. a permanent population
ii. a defined territory
iii. government
iv. capacity to enter into relations with other states

empat kriteria tersebut juga telah dianggap sebagai bagian dari hukum kebiasaan internasional. Meski dalam kenyataannya, pengakuan tetaplah merupakan tindakan yang kontroversial dan masih menajdi bahan perdebatan secara teoritis.

e. Implikasi jika tiada pengakuan
Jika menganut teori konstitutif maka suatu negara yang belum mendapatkan pengakuan tidak memiliki hak dan kewajiban dalam masyarakat internasional. Resikonya adalah, jika negara itu melakukan kegiatan yang bertentangan dengan hukum internasional, maka secara teoritis, negara tersebut tidak dapat dikenai sanksi karena memang tidak memiliki hak dan kewajiban. Hal ini tentu saja sangat menyulitkan posisi suatu negara untuk tidak mengakui keberadaan negara lain. Lihat putusan Tinoco Arbitration (1923) 1 RIAA 369

Di sisi lain, jika pengakuan hanya merupakan pernyataan tanpa memiliki implikasi hukum apapun sebagaimana dianut dalam teori deklarasi maka, begitu secara de facto negara tersebut ada maka secara de jure pula negara tersebut telah terikat dengan hak dan kewajiban sebagai anggota masyarakat hukum internasional.

Kasus-Kasus yang Relevan

• Deutsche Continental Gas-Gesellschaft v Polish State (1925) 5 AD 11: pentingnya wilayah yang jelas bagi munculnya pengakuan suatu negara
• Austro-German Customs Union Case (1931) PCIJ Reports, Series A/B, no 41, perlunya ada independensi dari suatu negara untuk bisa diakui
• Western Sahara case (1975) ICJ Reports, hal 12, menekankan pentingnya populasi yang jelas bagi adanya suatu pengakuan
• Tinoco Arbitration (1923) 1 RIAA 369, menunjukkan bahwa de facto keberadaan suatu negara secara otomatis akan membuat negara tersebut memiliki kewajiban yang harus dipenuhi dalam masyarakat internasional



The Avalon Project at Yale Law School
Convention on Rights and Duties of States (inter-American); December 26, 1933

Convention signed at Montevideo December 26, 1933; Senate advice and consent to ratification, with a reservation, June 15, 1934; Ratified by the President of the United States, with a reservation, June 29, 1934; Ratification of the United States deposited with the Pan American Union July 13, 1934; Entered into force December 26, 1934; Proclaimed by the President of the United States January 18, 1935; Article 8 reaffirmed by protocol of December 23, 1936.
49 Stat. 3097;
Treaty Series 881

The Governments represented in the Seventh International Conference of American States:

Wishing to conclude a Convention on Rights and Duties of States, have appointed the following Plenipotentiaries:

Honduras: MIGUEL PAZ BARAONA, AUGUSTO C. COELLO, LUIS BOGRAN

United States of America: CORDELL HULL, ALEXANDER W. WEDDELL, J. REUBEN CLARK, J. BUTLER WRIGHT, SPRUILLE BRADEN, Miss SOPHONISBA P. BRECKINRIDGE

El Salvador: HECTOR DAVID CASTRO, ARTURO RAMON AVILA, J. CIPRIANO CASTRO

Dominican Republic: TULIO M. CESTERO

Haiti: JUSTIN BARAU, FRANCIS SALGADO, ANTOINE PIERRE-PAUL, EDMOND MANGONES

Argentina: CARLOS SAAVEDRA LAMAS, JUAN F. CAFFERATA, RAMON S. CASTILLO, CARLOS BREBBIA, ISIDORO RUIZ MORENO, LUIS A. PODESTA COSTA, RAUL PREBISCH, DANIEL ANTOKOLETZ

Venezuela: CESAR ZUMETA, LUIS CHURTON, JOSE RAFAEL MONTTLLA

Uruguay: ALBERTO MANE, JUAN JOSE AMEZAGA, JOSE G. ANTUNA, JUAN CARLOS BLANCO, Senora SOFIA A. V. DE DEMICHELI, MARTIN R. ECHEGOYEN, LUIS ALBERTO DE HERRERA, PEDRO MANINI RIOS, MATEO MARQUES CASTRO, RODOLFO MEZZERA, OCTAVIO MORAT6, LUIS MORQUIO, TEOFILO PINEYRO CHAIN, DARDO REGULES, JOSE SERRATO, JOSE PEDRO VARELA

Paraguay: JUSTO PASTOR BENITEZ, GERONIMO RIART, HORACIO A. FERNANDEZ, Senorita MARIA F. GONZALEZ

Mexico: JOSE MANUEL PUIG CASAURANC, ALFONSO REYES, BASILIO VADILLO, GENARO V. VASQUEZ, ROMEO ORTEGA, MANUEL J. SIERRA, EDUARDO SUAREZ

Panama: J. D. AROSEMENA, EDUARDO E. HOLGUIN, OSCAR R. MULLER, MAGIN PONS

Bolivia: CASTO ROJAS, DAVID ALVESTEGUI, ARTURO PINTO ESCALIER

Guatemala: ALFREDO SKINNER KLEE, JOSE GONZALEZ CAMPO, CARLOS SALAZAR, MANUEL ARROYO

Brazil: AFRANIO DE MELLO FRANCO, LUCILLO A DA CUNHA BUENO, FRANCISCO LUIS DA SILVA CAMPOS, GILBERTO AMADO, CARLOS CHAGAS, SAMUEL RIBEIRO

Ecuador: AUGUSTO AGUIRRE APARICIO, HUMBERTO ALBORNOZ, ANTONIO PARRA, CARLOS PUIG VILASSAR, ARTURO SCARONE

Nicaragua: LEONARDO ARGUELLO, MANUEL CORDERO REYES, CARLOS CUADRA PASOS

Colombia: ALFONSO LOPEZ, RAIMUNDO RIVAS, JOSE CAMACEO CARRENO

Chile: MIGUEL CRUCHAGA TOCORNAL, OCTAVIO SENORET SILVA, GUSTAVO RIVERA, JOSE RAMON GUTIERREZ, FELIX NIETO DEL RIO, FRANCISCO FIGUEROA SANCHEZ, BENJAMIN COHEN

Peru: ALFREDO SOLE Y MURO, FELIPE BARREDA LAOS, LUIS FERNAN CISNEROS

Cuba: ANGEL ALBERTO GIRAUDY, HERMINIO PORTELL VILA, ALFREDO NOGUEIRA

Who, after having exhibited their Full Powers, which were found to be in good and due order, have agreed upon the following:

ARTICLE 1

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: a ) a permanent population; b ) a defined territory; c ) government; and d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

ARTICLE 2

The federal state shall constitute a sole person in the eyes of international law.

ARTICLE 3

The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states. Even before recognition the state has the right to defend its integrity and independence, to provide for its conservation and prosperity, and consequently to organize itself as it sees fit, to legislate upon its interests, administer its services, and to define the jurisdiction and competence of its courts.

The exercise of these rights has no other limitation than the exercise of the rights of other states according to international law.

ARTICLE 4

States are juridically equal, enjoy the same rights, and have equal capacity in their exercise. The rights of each one do not depend upon the power which it possesses to assure its exercise, but upon the simple fact of its existence as a person under international law.

ARTICLE 5

The fundamental rights of states are not susceptible of being affected in any manner whatsoever.

ARTICLE 6

The recognition of a state merely signifies that the state which recognizes it accepts the personality of the other with all the rights and duties determined by international law. Recognition is unconditional and irrevocable.

ARTICLE 7

The recognition of a state may be express or tacit. The latter results from any act which implies the intention of recognizing the new state.

ARTICLE 8

No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.

ARTICLE 9

The jurisdiction of states within the limits of national territory applies to all the inhabitants.

Nationals and foreigners are under the same protection of the law and the national authorities and the foreigners may not claim rights other or more extensive than those of the nationals.

ARTICLE 10

The primary interest of states is the conservation of peace. Differences of any nature which arise between them should be settled by recognized pacific methods.

ARTICLE 11

The contracting states definitely establish as the rule of their conduct the precise obligation not to recognize territorial acquisitions or special advantages which have been obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure. The territory of a state is inviolable and may not be the object of military occupation nor of other measures of force imposed by another state directly or indirectly or for any motive whatever even temporarily.

ARTICLE 12

The present Convention shall not affect obligations previously entered into by the High Contracting Parties by virtue of international agreements.

ARTICLE 13

The present Convention shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties in conformity with their respective constitutional procedures. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uruguay shall transmit authentic certified copies to the governments for the aforementioned purpose of ratification. The instrument of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Pan American Union in Washington, which shall notify the signatory governments of said deposit. Such notification shall be considered as an exchange of ratifications.

ARTICLE 14

The present Convention will enter into force between the High Contracting Parties in the order in which they deposit their respective ratifications.

ARTICLE 15

The present Convention shall remain in force indefinitely but may be denounced by means of one year's notice given to the Pan American Union, which shall transmit it to the other signatory governments. After the expiration of this period the Convention shall cease in its effects as regards the party which denounces but shall remain in effect for the remaining High Contracting Parties.

ARTICLE 16

The present Convention shall be open for the adherence and accession of the States which are not signatories. The corresponding instruments shall be deposited in the archives of the Pan American Union which shall communicate them to the other High Contracting Parties.

In witness whereof, the following Plenipotentiaries have signed this Convention in Spanish, English, Portuguese and French and hereunto affix their respective seals in the city of Montevideo, Republic of Uruguay, this 26th day of December, 1933.

RESERVATIONS

The Delegation of the United States of America, in signing the Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, does so with the express reservation presented to the Plenary Session of the Conference on December 22, 1933, which reservation reads as follows:

The Delegation of the United States, in voting "yes" on the final vote on this committee recommendation and proposal, makes the same reservation to the eleven articles of the project or proposal that the United States Delegation made to the first ten articles during the final vote in the full Commission, which reservation is in words as follows:

"The policy and attitude of the United States Government toward every important phase of international relationships in this hemisphere could scarcely be made more clear and definite than they have been made by both word and action especially since March 4. I [Secretary of State Cordell Hull, chairman of U.S. delegation] have no disposition therefore to indulge in any repetition or rehearsal of these acts and utterances and shall not do so. Every observing person must by this time thoroughly understand that under the Roosevelt Administration the United States Government is as much opposed as any other government to interference with the freedom, the sovereignty, or other internal affairs or processes of the governments of other nations.

"In addition to numerous acts and utterances in connection with the carrying out of these doctrines and policies, President Roosevelt, during recent weeks, gave out a public statement expressing his disposition to open negotiations with the Cuban Government for the purpose of dealing with the treaty which has existed since 1903. I feel safe in undertaking to say that under our support of the general principle of non-intervention as has been suggested, no government need fear any intervention on the part of the United States under the Roosevelt Administration. I think it unfortunate that during the brief period of this Conference there is apparently not time within which to prepare interpretations and definitions of these fundamental terms that are embraced in the report. Such definitions and interpretations would enable every government to proceed in a uniform way without any difference of opinion or of interpretations. I hope that at the earliest possible date such very important work will be done. In the meantime in case of differences of interpretations and also until they (the proposed doctrines and principles) can be worked out and codified for the common use of every government, I desire to say that the United States Government in all of its international associations and relationships and conduct will follow scrupulously the doctrines and policies which it has pursued since March 4 which are embodied in the different addresses of President Roosevelt since that time and in the recent peace address of myself on the 15th day of December before this Conference and in the law of nations as generally recognized and accepted".

The delegates of Brazil and Peru recorded the following private vote with regard to article 11: "That they accept the doctrine in principle but that they do not consider it codifiable because there are some countries which have not yet signed the Anti-War Pact of Rio de Janeiro 4 of which this doctrine is a part and therefore it does not yet constitute positive international law suitable for codification".

Honduras: M. PAZ BARAONA, AUGUSTO C. COELLO, Luls BOGRXN

United States of America: ALEXANDER W. WEDDELL, J. BUTLER WRIGUT

El Salvador: HECTOR DAVID CASTRO, ARTURO R. AVILA

Dominican Republic: TULIO M. CESTERO

Haiti: J. BARAU, F. SALGADO, EDMOND MANGONES, A. PRRE. PAUL

Argentina: CARLOS SAAVEDRA LAMAS, JUAN F. CAFFERATA, RAMON S. CASTILLO, I. Rulz MORENO, L. A. PODESTA COSTA, D. ANTOKOLETZ

Venezuela: LUIS CHURION, J. R. MONTILLA

Uruguay: A. MANE, JOSE PEDRO VARELA, MATEO MARQuEs CASTRO, DARDO REGULES, SOFIA ALVAREZ VIGNOLI DE DEMICIIELI, TEOFILO PINEYRO CHAIN, LUIS A. DE HERRERA, MARTIN R. EcnEcoYEN, JOSE G. ANTUNA, J. C. BLANCO, PEDRO MANINI RIOS, RODOLFO MEZZERA, OCTAVTO MORATO, LUIS MOROQUIO, JOSE SERRATO

Paraguay: JUSTO PASTOR BENITEZ, MARIA F. GONZALEZ

Mexico: B. VADILLO, M. J. STERRA, EDUARDO SUAREZ

Panama: J. D. AROSEMENA, MAGIN PONS, EDUARDO E. HOLGUIN

Guatemala: M. ARROYO

Brazil: LUCILLO A. DA CUNHA BUENO, GILBERTO AMADO

Ecuador: A. AGUIRRE APARICIO, H. ALBORNOZ, ANTONIO PARRA V., C. PUIG V., ARTURO SCARONE

Nicaragua: LEONARDO ARGUELLO, M. CORDERO REYES, CARLOS CUADRA PASOS

Colombia: ALFONSO LOPEZ, RAIMUNDO RIVAS

Chile: MIGUEL CRUCHAGA, J. RAMON GUTIERREZ, F. FIGUEROA, F. NIETO DEL RIO, B. COHEN

Peru: (with the reservation set forth) ALFREDO SOLF Y MURO

Cuba: ALBERTO GIRAUDY, HERMINIO PORTELL VILA, ING. NOGUEIRA

Disadur dari Templeman, L, consultant editor, (1997) Public International Law, London: Old Bailey Press

1 Comments:

Blogger Resti said...

terimakasih bahannya ini membantu saya dalam mengerjakan tugas.

3:05 AM  

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